At 4 kelvin, helium condenses into a liquid with properties similar to water or any other liquid. At 2 kelvin, helium becomes a superfluid with properties unlike any other fluid we can create.

One of the strangest properties of superfluid helium is that it has zero viscosity. A flowing liquid experiences viscosity that causes it to slow down; for instance, stirred coffee eventually stops spinning. Superfluid helium has zero viscosity, and it spontaneously creates vortices that spin without resistance.

In Knot Physics, superfluidity results from the properties of the branched spacetime manifold.

Continue reading Superfluidity

Schrödinger’s Cat

At the center of physics is a conundrum that has persisted since the early days of quantum mechanics.

Schrödinger’s famous thought experiment involves a cat in a box. The cat is locked in a box with a vial of poison gas. The gas will be released if a radioactive atom decays. From outside the box, the experimenter does not know whether the cat is alive or dead. Schrödinger’s thought experiment illuminates a perplexing question: How can we reconcile quantum and classical physics?

Continue reading Schrödinger’s Cat